بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَا نُوحًا إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ أَنْ أَنذِرْ قَوْمَكَ مِن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِيَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ ﴿١﴾قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ إِنِّي لَكُمْ نَذِيرٌ مُّبِينٌ ﴿٢﴾أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّـهَ وَاتَّقُوهُ وَأَطِيعُونِ ﴿٣﴾يَغْفِرْ لَكُم مِّن ذُنُوبِكُمْ وَيُؤَخِّرْكُمْ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى ۚ إِنَّ أَجَلَ اللَّـهِ إِذَا جَاءَ لَا يُؤَخَّرُ ۖ لَوْ كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ ﴿٤﴾قَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّي دَعَوْتُ قَوْمِي لَيْلًا وَنَهَارًا ﴿٥﴾فَلَمْ يَزِدْهُمْ دُعَائِي إِلَّا فِرَارًا ﴿٦﴾وَإِنِّي كُلَّمَا دَعَوْتُهُمْ لِتَغْفِرَ لَهُمْ جَعَلُوا أَصَابِعَهُمْ فِي آذَانِهِمْ وَاسْتَغْشَوْا ثِيَابَهُمْ وَأَصَرُّوا وَاسْتَكْبَرُوا اسْتِكْبَارًا ﴿٧﴾ثُمَّ إِنِّي دَعَوْتُهُمْ جِهَارًا ﴿٨﴾ثُمَّ إِنِّي أَعْلَنتُ لَهُمْ وَأَسْرَرْتُ لَهُمْ إِسْرَارًا ﴿٩﴾فَقُلْتُ اسْتَغْفِرُوا رَبَّكُمْ إِنَّهُ كَانَ غَفَّارًا ﴿١٠﴾يُرْسِلِ السَّمَاءَ عَلَيْكُم مِّدْرَارًا ﴿١١﴾وَيُمْدِدْكُم بِأَمْوَالٍ وَبَنِينَ وَيَجْعَل لَّكُمْ جَنَّاتٍ وَيَجْعَل لَّكُمْ أَنْهَارًا ﴿١٢﴾مَّا لَكُمْ لَا تَرْجُونَ لِلَّـهِ وَقَارًا ﴿١٣﴾وَقَدْ خَلَقَكُمْ أَطْوَارًا ﴿١٤﴾أَلَمْ تَرَوْا كَيْفَ خَلَقَ اللَّـهُ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ طِبَاقًا ﴿١٥﴾وَجَعَلَ الْقَمَرَ فِيهِنَّ نُورًا وَجَعَلَ الشَّمْسَ سِرَاجًا ﴿١٦﴾وَاللَّـهُ أَنبَتَكُم مِّنَ الْأَرْضِ نَبَاتًا ﴿١٧﴾ثُمَّ يُعِيدُكُمْ فِيهَا وَيُخْرِجُكُمْ إِخْرَاجًا ﴿١٨﴾وَاللَّـهُ جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ بِسَاطًا ﴿١٩﴾لِّتَسْلُكُوا مِنْهَا سُبُلًا فِجَاجًا ﴿٢٠﴾قَالَ نُوحٌ رَّبِّ إِنَّهُمْ عَصَوْنِي وَاتَّبَعُوا مَن لَّمْ يَزِدْهُ مَالُهُ وَوَلَدُهُ إِلَّا خَسَارًا ﴿٢١﴾وَمَكَرُوا مَكْرًا كُبَّارًا ﴿٢٢﴾وَقَالُوا لَا تَذَرُنَّ آلِهَتَكُمْ وَلَا تَذَرُنَّ وَدًّا وَلَا سُوَاعًا وَلَا يَغُوثَ وَيَعُوقَ وَنَسْرًا ﴿٢٣﴾وَقَدْ أَضَلُّوا كَثِيرًا ۖ وَلَا تَزِدِ الظَّالِمِينَ إِلَّا ضَلَالًا ﴿٢٤﴾مِّمَّا خَطِيئَاتِهِمْ أُغْرِقُوا فَأُدْخِلُوا نَارًا فَلَمْ يَجِدُوا لَهُم مِّن دُونِ اللَّـهِ أَنصَارًا ﴿٢٥﴾وَقَالَ نُوحٌ رَّبِّ لَا تَذَرْ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ دَيَّارًا ﴿٢٦﴾إِنَّكَ إِن تَذَرْهُمْ يُضِلُّوا عِبَادَكَ وَلَا يَلِدُوا إِلَّا فَاجِرًا كَفَّارًا ﴿٢٧﴾رَّبِّ اغْفِرْ لِي وَلِوَالِدَيَّ وَلِمَن دَخَلَ بَيْتِيَ مُؤْمِنًا وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ وَلَا تَزِدِ الظَّالِمِينَ إِلَّا تَبَارًا ﴿٢٨﴾
بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَا نُوحًا إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ أَنْ أَنذِرْ قَوْمَكَ مِن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِيَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ ﴿١﴾
[Nuh 71:1] We (Allah) sent Noah to warn his People and Command them to worship Allah: That is warn your people before there come upon them a painful punishment.
Allah sent Prophet Nuh to call his people to worship Allah the Exalted and leave out worshipping the idols. Nuh is the first Prophet that was sent to the blasphemers but he is not absolutely the first prophet, rather the first prophet is Adam, peace be upon him. Allah ordered Nuh to scare them and warn them before the torture of Allah, in Hellfire in the Hereafter or drowning them by the flood, befalls them. It was said, warn them in general about the severe torture that will befall them if they do not believe.
قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ إِنِّي لَكُمْ نَذِيرٌ مُّبِينٌ ﴿٢﴾
[Nuh 71:2] He said: “O my People! I am to you certainly a Warner that painful punishment will befall you for your blasphemy, clear and open:
Nuh was ordered to frighten his people and warn them about the torture of Allah to beware that it befalls them because of their blasphemy, and that his warning to them stands crystal clear. It was said that it means I show you the message of Allah in a language that you know very well.
أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّـهَ وَاتَّقُوهُ وَأَطِيعُونِ ﴿٣﴾
[Nuh 71:3] That you should worship Allah and be God-fearing and obey me for I am the Messenger sent to you:
Worship Allah alone and do not associate anything with him and obey His orders and avoid sinning and obey me in what I order you and forbid you, for I am the Messenger of Allah sent to you. Ibn Kathir, Nafi^, Ibn ^Amr, and al-Kisa’iyy recited “anu^budullaha” with a damma on the nun.
This ayah contains the order of Allah to his slaves to clear Allah of all non befitting attributes and to obey Him. Thus, this ayah contains refutation of those who embrace the notion of the freedom of creed, those who claim that should a human being want to worship a dog or a pig or deny the existence of Allah, that he is entitled to that, may Allah protect us from that. And this is an invalid claim that no one with a sound mind would accept. A person might choose to be a blasphemer but he is definitely accountable for that and will suffer the consequences.
يَغْفِرْ لَكُم مِّن ذُنُوبِكُمْ وَيُؤَخِّرْكُمْ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى ۚ إِنَّ أَجَلَ اللَّـهِ إِذَا جَاءَ لَا يُؤَخَّرُ ۖ لَوْ كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ ﴿٤﴾
[Nuh 71:4] He (Allah) will forgive you the sins you have committed prior to believing and grant you a delay up to your appointed death-term; surely the term of Allah when it comes is not postponed; if you but knew the consequences of dying with blasphemy!
The answer statement to the aforementioned orders, namely worshipping Allah and obeying His orders and being obedient to Him, is established here. The answer statement is should you do that then Allah will forgive some of your sins because the belief erases the sins that came before, that is Allah will forgive your past sins until the time you have become believers. Allah, tabaraka wa ta^ala, shall delay you until a specific preset death time known to Allah, that does not increase nor decrease. Allah knew with His eternal knowledge who shall die as a believer and who shall die as a blasphemer, and when the death times of the slaves are. And when the death time comes it cannot be delayed by torture or otherwise.
Allah attributed the specified death time to Himself because He is the One who willed and confirmed it. Sometimes the death time can be attributed to the people, such as in the saying of Allah in Suratun An Nahl: “should their death time arrive”, which means: if their death times come. Because this is a death time that is set to befall them. The Ayah addresses them that had you known what will befall you of remorse and regret when your life ends, you would have believed.
قَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّي دَعَوْتُ قَوْمِي لَيْلًا وَنَهَارًا ﴿٥﴾
[Nuh 71:5] He said: O my Lord! Surely I have called my people to your worship relentlessly by night and by day!
When Nuh, peace be upon him, delivered the message to his people, and they disobeyed him, and turned away from what he brought them from Allah, he said O Allah I have called my people diligently during the day and the night, that is at all times, to clear you from all non befitting attributes and to worship you and I warned them about your severe punishment.
فَلَمْ يَزِدْهُمْ دُعَائِي إِلَّا فِرَارًا ﴿٦﴾
[Nuh 71:6] “But my call only increases their flight from the Right path”.
My calling them to the truth with which you have sent me to them was reciprocated by them by standing farther from the belief. A man used to bring his son over to Nuh and tell him be cautious of this person for my father cautioned me against him.
وَإِنِّي كُلَّمَا دَعَوْتُهُمْ لِتَغْفِرَ لَهُمْ جَعَلُوا أَصَابِعَهُمْ فِي آذَانِهِمْ وَاسْتَغْشَوْا ثِيَابَهُمْ وَأَصَرُّوا وَاسْتَكْبَرُوا اسْتِكْبَارًا ﴿٧﴾
[Nuh 71:7] And whenever I have called them to worship you (Allah) so you may forgive them, they put their fingers in their ears, cover themselves with their garments, and stubbornly persist and are puffed up with arrogance:
Each time I called them to clear you (Allah) from all non befitting attributes and be obedient to You and disown themselves from worshipping all but You so that it would be a reason for them to repent and thus to be forgiven, they would stick their fingers into their ears so that they may not hear me calling them to worship You. And they covered their faces with their clothes so that they do not see the Prophet of Allah, Nuh, peace be upon him, out of disliking and hating to hear the advice and seeing the person who is giving the advice. And they insisted to stay as blasphemers and they did not repent. And they were extremely arrogant to accept the truth.
ثُمَّ إِنِّي دَعَوْتُهُمْ جِهَارًا ﴿٨﴾
[Nuh 71:8] Then surely I called to them aloud.
Thereafter I have called them to that with which you have ordered me publicly and overtly without concealing anything.
ثُمَّ إِنِّي أَعْلَنتُ لَهُمْ وَأَسْرَرْتُ لَهُمْ إِسْرَارًا ﴿٩﴾
[Nuh 71:9] Further I have spoken to them in public and secretly in private,
I have repeatedly called them publicly and secretly and in seclusion. Hence Prophet Nuh exaggerated in calling them and used a variety of methods in calling them, secretly sometimes and openly sometimes, and sometimes both secretly and openly. This is what the one who calls to Allah diligently does.
فَقُلْتُ اسْتَغْفِرُوا رَبَّكُمْ إِنَّهُ كَانَ غَفَّارًا ﴿١٠﴾
[Nuh 71:10] Then I said, Ask forgiveness of your Lord, surely He (Allah) is the most Forgiving:
Prophet Nuh, peace be upon him, ordered his people to embrace Islam. He told them “o people seek the forgiveness from your Lord by quitting the blasphemy that you are engaged in, through believing in Allah alone, who is the only One who deserves godhood, and by believing in Nuh, being the Prophet of Allah and His Messenger to you, by uttering the two Testifications of Faith. Hence, what is meant by seeking forgiveness here, is not simply to say by the tongue I seek the forgiveness of Allah, because the people of Nuh were associating partners with Allah, and it is not valid from a blasphemer to utter statements of forgiveness while engaged in the state of blasphemy. Indeed Allah is the One who forgives the sins for those who come to Him in repentance from their sins.
يُرْسِلِ السَّمَاءَ عَلَيْكُم مِّدْرَارًا ﴿١١﴾
[Nuh 71:11] He (Allah) will let loose the sky for you and will send down rain to you pouring in abundance;
Allah is the One who sends upon you abundant rain water from the sky.
وَيُمْدِدْكُم بِأَمْوَالٍ وَبَنِينَ وَيَجْعَل لَّكُمْ جَنَّاتٍ وَيَجْعَل لَّكُمْ أَنْهَارًا ﴿١٢﴾
[Nuh 71:12] And will Give you increase in wealth and sons; and bestow on you gardens and bestow on you rivers of flowing water.
And He (Allah) is the One who gives you plenty of money and children and bestows upon you orchards and running rivers from which you irrigate your farms and orchards.
مَّا لَكُمْ لَا تَرْجُونَ لِلَّـهِ وَقَارًا ﴿١٣﴾
[Nuh 71:13] What is the matter with you that you fear not the Greatness and Power of Allah?
So what is the matter with you that you do not fear the Greatness of Allah and His Power to punish you? It was said the verse means, what is the matter with you, you do not hope a reward from Allah and you do not fear His punishment.
وَقَدْ خَلَقَكُمْ أَطْوَارًا ﴿١٤﴾
[Nuh 71:14] And indeed He (Allah) has created you through the various grades of the sperm clot –chewed like bite of meat–,
And Allah is the One who created you one phase after another. One phase as a sperm and a phase as a clot and a phase as a chewed like bite of meat and a phase as bones and then Allah covered the bones with flesh and created it. So great is Allah, so glorified is Allah, the One who is the best to carry out His Will.
أَلَمْ تَرَوْا كَيْفَ خَلَقَ اللَّـهُ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ طِبَاقًا ﴿١٥﴾
[Nuh 71:15] Do you not see how Allah has created the seven skies in harmony one above another,
Haven’t you looked and thought and took heed how Allah created seven skies, one on top of another?
وَجَعَلَ الْقَمَرَ فِيهِنَّ نُورًا وَجَعَلَ الشَّمْسَ سِرَاجًا ﴿١٦﴾
[Nuh 71:16] And made the moon therein a luminous light, and made the sun as a glorious Lantern?
And created in the lower sky the moon, its face toward the skies and its back toward the earth, illuminating to the occupants of the skies and illuminating to the occupants of the earth. And Allah created the sun, its face toward the skies and its back toward the earth, as an illuminating lantern for the occupants of earth so they may go about their livelihoods. Allah likened the sun to a lantern in that it removes the darkness of the night from the face of earth, just as the lantern removes it from its surroundings.
وَاللَّـهُ أَنبَتَكُم مِّنَ الْأَرْضِ نَبَاتًا ﴿١٧﴾
[Nuh 71:17] And Allah has created you and produced you from the earth growing gradually,
Allah who has power over all things, is the One who raised you and created you. He raised Adam, peace be upon him, from the earth and his offspring came from Adam. Hence, it is valid that all of them were raised from the earth. This ayah signifies that the human being is similar in a particular sense to the plants in that the starting and the raising of the human being is from the soil. However, the human being has additional attributes over that which the plants have.
ثُمَّ يُعِيدُكُمْ فِيهَا وَيُخْرِجُكُمْ إِخْرَاجًا ﴿١٨﴾
[Nuh 71:18] Then He (Allah) makes you die and returns you into the (earth), and brings you forth again a new forth bringing at the Resurrection?
Then Allah shall return you back as soil, as you were, to the earth when you die and get buried. And indeed Allah shall take you out of the earth on the Day of Judgment by resurrecting you, the same way as you were in this world.
وَاللَّـهُ جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ بِسَاطًا ﴿١٩﴾
[Nuh 71:19] And Allah has made the earth for you a wide expanse as a spread out carpet so you may easily live on,
Allah, the Exalted, made the earth flattened, turning and tossing on it as the man turns and tosses on his carpet.
لِّتَسْلُكُوا مِنْهَا سُبُلًا فِجَاجًا ﴿٢٠﴾
[Nuh 71:20] And you may go about therein, in spacious wide paths.
So that you may follow broad pathways on it.
قَالَ نُوحٌ رَّبِّ إِنَّهُمْ عَصَوْنِي وَاتَّبَعُوا مَن لَّمْ يَزِدْهُ مَالُهُ وَوَلَدُهُ إِلَّا خَسَارًا ﴿٢١﴾
[Nuh 71:21] Noah said: “O my Lord! They have disobeyed my call to worship you, and followed their leaders whose wealth and children have added to them nothing but loss.
When they insisted on disobeying Nuh and they treated him using ugly words and actions, Nuh said: O my Lord, they have disobeyed me in that which I have ordered them to. They did not accept my call to them, to believe in you and that I am your Messenger. And they followed instead their common and low leaders and rich ones among them, those whom their blasphemy and money did not make them increase in anything except misguidance in this world and destruction in the hereafter.
The people of Madinah and Ibn Amr and ^Asim, recited wawaladuhu with a fathah on the lam and the waw. And the rest recited wawulduhu with a damma on the waw and a sukun on the lam. And both bear the same meaning.
وَمَكَرُوا مَكْرًا كُبَّارًا ﴿٢٢﴾
[Nuh 71:22] And they have planned a tremendous scheme.
So they were deceptive by being swindlers about the religion. And animosity toward Nuh, peace be upon him, and instigating the low people to harm him, and blocking the people away from believing in him and leaning toward him and hearing from him. Their deception indeed was great.
وَقَالُوا لَا تَذَرُنَّ آلِهَتَكُمْ وَلَا تَذَرُنَّ وَدًّا وَلَا سُوَاعًا وَلَا يَغُوثَ وَيَعُوقَ وَنَسْرًا ﴿٢٣﴾
[Nuh 71:23] And they have said to each other: By no means leave your gods: Abandon neither Wadd nor Suwa^, neither Yaguth nor Ya^uq, nor Nasra;-
The leaders told their followers or some of them told others, do not leave out worshipping your idols, so do not quit, neither Wadd (an image of man) and Suwa^ (an image of a woman) and Yaghuth (an image of a lion) and ya^uq (an image of a horse) and Nasra (an image of a falcon), these are names of righteous people who lived in the era between Adam and Nuh, peace be upon them. When they died they had followers who followed their example and their methodology in worship. So Iblis whispered to them that establish in your circles statues for them and call them by their names to be more encouraging to you for worship, so they did. Then people came after them and Iblis told them, the people who were before you used to worship these pictures and at such time the knowledge of the religion became nonexistent. Hence the start of worshiping idols was from that time, and Nuh was the first Messenger whom Allah sent to the blasphemers.
These idols that existed at the time of the people of Nuh spread among the Arabs afterwards. As to Wadd it used to be for the people of Kalb. And as to Suwa^, it was for the people of Hamadan. As to Yaghuth it was for the people Madhhij. As to Ya^uq it was for the people of Murad. And as to Nasra it was for the people of Himyar.
Nafi^ and Abu Ja^far recited Wuddan with a damma on the waw and the rest with a fathah on the waw.
وَقَدْ أَضَلُّوا كَثِيرًا ۖ وَلَا تَزِدِ الظَّالِمِينَ إِلَّا ضَلَالًا ﴿٢٤﴾
[Nuh 71:24] And indeed their leaders have led astray many; and grant O Allah no increase to the wrong-doing blasphemers but in straying, for insisting on worshipping their idols.”
Those leaders have misguided many of their followers and of the public. This ayah is about Nuh telling about the misguidance that came about as a result of their hands.
And when he informed that they engaged in a lot of misguidance, he made a supplication to Allah that, O Allah seal the hearts of those who associated partners with You, who worshiped the idols so that they do not find the truth. And this means that Nuh knew before hand by revelation that they shall not believe.
مِّمَّا خَطِيئَاتِهِمْ أُغْرِقُوا فَأُدْخِلُوا نَارًا فَلَمْ يَجِدُوا لَهُم مِّن دُونِ اللَّـهِ أَنصَارًا ﴿٢٥﴾
[Nuh 71:25] Because of their blasphemy and sins they were drowned in the flood, and then made to enter the Fire: and they did not find any helpers other than Allah.
As a result of their sins and associating partners with Allah, they were drowned in the flood and they were admitted into the burnt by fire. The burning after being drowned by the flood is a proof of the torture in the grave. This is an expression about the future using the past tense as a reflection that certainly it is going to happen. Or else the meaning is that in reference to the blasphemers being subjected to the fire in the morning and the evening, as Allah stated in surat Ghafir. Those people shall not find supporters other than Allah to support them and avert from them the torture of Allah.
Abu Amr reciting mimma khatayahum, instead of khati’ahum.
وَقَالَ نُوحٌ رَّبِّ لَا تَذَرْ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ دَيَّارًا ﴿٢٦﴾
[Nuh 71:26] And when Noah knew from Allah they will die in blasphemy, said: “O my Lord! Leave not of the Unbelievers, a single one on earth!
Nuh said, O Allah do not leave wandering on the face of the earth any of the blasphemers.
إِنَّكَ إِن تَذَرْهُمْ يُضِلُّوا عِبَادَكَ وَلَا يَلِدُوا إِلَّا فَاجِرًا كَفَّارًا ﴿٢٧﴾
[Nuh 71:27] For surely if you leave any of them they will lead astray your slaves, and will not beget any but wicked, immoral, ungrateful children who will blaspheme once accountable.
O Allah, should you leave the blasphemers alive on the face of the earth and do not destroy them with a torture from you, they shall call your slaves to misguidance and they shall only give birth to those who will be blasphemers once they attaint the age of accountability. Nuh said that because he tested them and tried them and learned their habits for he lived among them 1.000 years less 50. Also, Nuh made a supplication against them after Allah revealed to him as in the ayah in Surat Hud, that no one among your people shall believe beyond those who have already believed.
رَّبِّ اغْفِرْ لِي وَلِوَالِدَيَّ وَلِمَن دَخَلَ بَيْتِيَ مُؤْمِنًا وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ وَلَا تَزِدِ الظَّالِمِينَ إِلَّا تَبَارًا ﴿٢٨﴾
[Nuh 71:28] “O my Lord! Forgive me, my believing parents, all who enter my mosque in Faith, and all believing men and believing women: and do not increase the unjust blasphemers but destruction!
O Allah forgive me and my parents, both of them were believers, his father’s name was Lamak and his mother’s name was Shamkha’. And forgive those who have entered my mosque as a believer, and forgive the male and the female believers . It was said forgive those who have entered my house, and it was said those who have embarked his ark. And O Allah only increase the blasphemers with destruction and Allah answered his supplication and destroyed them.
Ibn ^Abbas said:” Nuh made two supplications, one against the blasphemers and one for the believers. His supplication against the blasphemers was answered, hence it is impossible that his supplication for the believers would not be answered.
Hafs from the route of ^Asim recited baytiya with a fathah on the ya’.