بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
ن ۚ وَالْقَلَمِ وَمَا يَسْطُرُونَ ﴿١﴾مَا أَنتَ بِنِعْمَةِ رَبِّكَ بِمَجْنُونٍ ﴿٢﴾وَإِنَّ لَكَ لَأَجْرًا غَيْرَ مَمْنُونٍ ﴿٣﴾وَإِنَّكَ لَعَلَىٰ خُلُقٍ عَظِيمٍ ﴿٤﴾فَسَتُبْصِرُ وَيُبْصِرُونَ ﴿٥﴾بِأَييِّكُمُ الْمَفْتُونُ ﴿٦﴾إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن ضَلَّ عَن سَبِيلِهِ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ ﴿٧﴾فَلَا تُطِعِ الْمُكَذِّبِينَ ﴿٨﴾وَدُّوا لَوْ تُدْهِنُ فَيُدْهِنُونَ ﴿٩﴾وَلَا تُطِعْ كُلَّ حَلَّافٍ مَّهِينٍ ﴿١٠﴾هَمَّازٍ مَّشَّاءٍ بِنَمِيمٍ ﴿١١﴾مَّنَّاعٍ لِّلْخَيْرِ مُعْتَدٍ أَثِيمٍ ﴿١٢﴾عُتُلٍّ بَعْدَ ذَٰلِكَ زَنِيمٍ ﴿١٣﴾أَن كَانَ ذَا مَالٍ وَبَنِينَ ﴿١٤﴾إِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِ آيَاتُنَا قَالَ أَسَاطِيرُ الْأَوَّلِينَ ﴿١٥﴾سَنَسِمُهُ عَلَى الْخُرْطُومِ ﴿١٦﴾إِنَّا بَلَوْنَاهُمْ كَمَا بَلَوْنَا أَصْحَابَ الْجَنَّةِ إِذْ أَقْسَمُوا لَيَصْرِمُنَّهَا مُصْبِحِينَ ﴿١٧﴾وَلَا يَسْتَثْنُونَ ﴿١٨﴾فَطَافَ عَلَيْهَا طَائِفٌ مِّن رَّبِّكَ وَهُمْ نَائِمُونَ ﴿١٩﴾فَأَصْبَحَتْ كَالصَّرِيمِ ﴿٢٠﴾فَتَنَادَوْا مُصْبِحِينَ ﴿٢١﴾أَنِ اغْدُوا عَلَىٰ حَرْثِكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ صَارِمِينَ ﴿٢٢﴾فَانطَلَقُوا وَهُمْ يَتَخَافَتُونَ ﴿٢٣﴾أَن لَّا يَدْخُلَنَّهَا الْيَوْمَ عَلَيْكُم مِّسْكِينٌ ﴿٢٤﴾وَغَدَوْا عَلَىٰ حَرْدٍ قَادِرِينَ ﴿٢٥﴾فَلَمَّا رَأَوْهَا قَالُوا إِنَّا لَضَالُّونَ ﴿٢٦﴾بَلْ نَحْنُ مَحْرُومُونَ ﴿٢٧﴾قَالَ أَوْسَطُهُمْ أَلَمْ أَقُل لَّكُمْ لَوْلَا تُسَبِّحُونَ ﴿٢٨﴾قَالُوا سُبْحَانَ رَبِّنَا إِنَّا كُنَّا ظَالِمِينَ ﴿٢٩﴾فَأَقْبَلَ بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ يَتَلَاوَمُونَ ﴿٣٠﴾قَالُوا يَا وَيْلَنَا إِنَّا كُنَّا طَاغِينَ ﴿٣١﴾عَسَىٰ رَبُّنَا أَن يُبْدِلَنَا خَيْرًا مِّنْهَا إِنَّا إِلَىٰ رَبِّنَا رَاغِبُونَ ﴿٣٢﴾كَذَٰلِكَ الْعَذَابُ ۖ وَلَعَذَابُ الْآخِرَةِ أَكْبَرُ ۚ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿٣٣﴾إِنَّ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ جَنَّاتِ النَّعِيمِ ﴿٣٤﴾أَفَنَجْعَلُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ كَالْمُجْرِمِينَ ﴿٣٥﴾مَا لَكُمْ كَيْفَ تَحْكُمُونَ ﴿٣٦﴾أَمْ لَكُمْ كِتَابٌ فِيهِ تَدْرُسُونَ ﴿٣٧﴾إِنَّ لَكُمْ فِيهِ لَمَا تَخَيَّرُونَ ﴿٣٨﴾أَمْ لَكُمْ أَيْمَانٌ عَلَيْنَا بَالِغَةٌ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ ۙ إِنَّ لَكُمْ لَمَا تَحْكُمُونَ ﴿٣٩﴾سَلْهُمْ أَيُّهُم بِذَٰلِكَ زَعِيمٌ ﴿٤٠﴾أَمْ لَهُمْ شُرَكَاءُ فَلْيَأْتُوا بِشُرَكَائِهِمْ إِن كَانُوا صَادِقِينَ ﴿٤١﴾يَوْمَ يُكْشَفُ عَن سَاقٍ وَيُدْعَوْنَ إِلَى السُّجُودِ فَلَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ ﴿٤٢﴾خَاشِعَةً أَبْصَارُهُمْ تَرْهَقُهُمْ ذِلَّةٌ ۖ وَقَدْ كَانُوا يُدْعَوْنَ إِلَى السُّجُودِ وَهُمْ سَالِمُونَ ﴿٤٣﴾فَذَرْنِي وَمَن يُكَذِّبُ بِهَـٰذَا الْحَدِيثِ ۖ سَنَسْتَدْرِجُهُم مِّنْ حَيْثُ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿٤٤﴾وَأُمْلِي لَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ كَيْدِي مَتِينٌ ﴿٤٥﴾أَمْ تَسْأَلُهُمْ أَجْرًا فَهُم مِّن مَّغْرَمٍ مُّثْقَلُونَ ﴿٤٦﴾أَمْ عِندَهُمُ الْغَيْبُ فَهُمْ يَكْتُبُونَ ﴿٤٧﴾فَاصْبِرْ لِحُكْمِ رَبِّكَ وَلَا تَكُن كَصَاحِبِ الْحُوتِ إِذْ نَادَىٰ وَهُوَ مَكْظُومٌ ﴿٤٨﴾لَّوْلَا أَن تَدَارَكَهُ نِعْمَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ لَنُبِذَ بِالْعَرَاءِ وَهُوَ مَذْمُومٌ ﴿٤٩﴾فَاجْتَبَاهُ رَبُّهُ فَجَعَلَهُ مِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ ﴿٥٠﴾وَإِن يَكَادُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَيُزْلِقُونَكَ بِأَبْصَارِهِمْ لَمَّا سَمِعُوا الذِّكْرَ وَيَقُولُونَ إِنَّهُ لَمَجْنُونٌ ﴿٥١﴾وَمَا هُوَ إِلَّا ذِكْرٌ لِّلْعَالَمِينَ ﴿٥٢﴾
بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
ن ۚ وَالْقَلَمِ وَمَا يَسْطُرُونَ ﴿١﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:1] I (Allah) make adjuration by the Nun and by the pen with which the angels record the happenings that take place in this life and until the Day of Judgment.
Ibn Kathir, Nafi^, Khalaf by the way of Warsh, Abu ^Amr, Hamzah, Hafs recited with enunciating the Nun; that is with removing the Idgham of the Nun with the waw of the adjuration. Ibn ^Amir, al Kisa’i, Shu^bah, Khalaf and Ya^qub recited with making Idgham of the the Nun with the waw of the adjuration.
Nun. Allah knows best what He means by it and apparently it refers to the letter in the Arabic alphabet. Allah makes adjuration by the pen, due to the insurmountable benefits it presents, and by what the angels write (therewith) among all what happens in this life and until the Day of Judgment among death times, deeds, sustenance and other.
مَا أَنتَ بِنِعْمَةِ رَبِّكَ بِمَجْنُونٍ ﴿٢﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:2] O Muhammad, the grace of belief, prophet hood and other that your Lord endowed upon you does not render you mad.
O Muhammad, you are not insane, as the blasphemers falsely claim, for receiving the endowments of belief, prophet hood and other than that from your Lord. Ibn al-Mundhir related from Ibn Jurayj that he said: the blasphemers used to say to the prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, that he is an insane devil. Hence the Ayah was revealed to establish that you Muhammad are not insane for the grace of prophet hood and belief that Allah bestowed upon you. The endowments of Allah upon him are apparent, the complete articulation, complete mind, good reputation, clearance from non befitting attributes, praiseworthy manners; and this definitely exposes the fabrication of the blasphemers in their saying and refutes them. This ayah answers the saying of the blasphemers reported in surah al Hijr ayah 15 about the prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, that he is insane.
﴿٣﴾ وَإِنَّ لَكَ لَأَجْرًا غَيْرَ مَمْنُونٍ
[Al-Qalam 68:3] And most surely O Muhammad, you shall have a great reward from your Lord for your patience with the harm of the Mushriks, unfailing and never to be cut off; so do not let their saying (you are mad) stop you from calling the creations to the belief about Allah.
O Muhammad you shall indeed have a great reward from Allah for your patience with the harm of the blasphemers who associate partners with Allah; full rewards that shall never stop. Hence do not let their fabricated saying hinder you from inviting the people to believe in and worship Allah.
وَإِنَّكَ لَعَلَىٰ خُلُقٍ عَظِيمٍ ﴿٤﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:4] And most surely O Muhammad, you adhere to the sublime manners with which Allah ordered you in the Qur’an.
Surely, O Muhammad, you have great manners and you adhere to them. Imam Muslim narrated in his book as-Sahih from ^A’ishah may Allah accept her deeds and from her father who said: “فإن خُلُق نبي الله صلى الله عليه وسلم القرءان”: Indeed you have and adhere to the adorning manners with which Allah ordered you in the Qur’an.
فَسَتُبْصِرُ وَيُبْصِرُونَ ﴿٥﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:5] So Muhammad you shall see, and on the Day of Judgment the Mushriks of Makkah shall see (the promised threat of Allah.)
On the Day of Judgment you shall indeed know O Muhammad. The blasphemers among the people of Makkah who associate partners with Allah shall know too and realize Allah’s promise of punishment.
بِأَييِّكُمُ الْمَفْتُونُ ﴿٦﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:6] Which of you is afflicted with madness, the group of believers with whom you are or the group of the Mushriks.
It will be known on the Day of Judgment whether the one afflicted with insanity is with the group of believers with whom you belong, or with the group of blasphemers who associate partners with Allah.
إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن ضَلَّ عَن سَبِيلِهِ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ ﴿٧﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:7] Verily your Lord best knows him who strayed from His way, and He best knows the followers of the right path. And on the Day of Judgment, Allah shall recompense each of them according to His knowledge.
O Muhammad Allah knows best who strayed away from His Religion and Allah knows best who are on the path of guidance. On the Day of Judgment Allah shall recompense each according to His eternal and everlasting knowledge.
فَلَا تُطِعِ الْمُكَذِّبِينَ ﴿٨﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:8] So do not obey, in any of what they demanded of you, those who deny the Truth revealed to you.
The prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, like all other prophets, is impeccable from committing blasphemy before and after prophet hood. Hence the address is to teach us to be steadfast to the true religion of Islam. So do not obey O Muhammadthe heads of Makkah who invited you to their religion and belied the revelation that descended upon you; and indeed he is impeccable from obeying them. The Ayah entails prohibition of following any of what they called him to, whether among leaving them alone in exchange for leaving him alone, for him to glorify part of the time what they worshipped other than Allah and part of the time to worship Allah, and other than that.
وَدُّوا لَوْ تُدْهِنُ فَيُدْهِنُونَ ﴿٩﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:9] They wish that you should compromise and be pliant so they (too) would compromise and be pliant.
The blasphemers wished O Muhammad that you depart some of the obedience that you do for their sake, so they may reciprocate and depart some of the wrong that they do lest you may be flexible with them and they be flexible with you.
وَلَا تُطِعْ كُلَّ حَلَّافٍ مَّهِينٍ ﴿١٠﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:10] And do not obey any mean oath-monger men, swear-ers to false hood and despicable to themselves.
Do not obey O Muhammad any swear-er who exaggerates in swearing to falsehood, who is degraded and despicable in opinion and differentiating between matters. Some said it means do not obey any liar who is despicable to himself. Al-Hafidh Ibn Hajar said in his book ”Fath al-Bari in Explaining Sahih al-Bukhari”: “There is a difference in opinion regarding whom the Ayah was revealed about, it was said it was about al-Walid Ibn al-Mughirah as mentioned by Yahya Ibn Salam in his Interpretation. And it was said it was about al-Aswad ibn ^Abd Yaghuth as mentioned by Sunayd Ibn Dawud in his Interpretation. And it was said it was about al-Akhnas Ibn Shurayq as mentioned by as-Suhayli from the route of al-Qutaybi. The last two sayings were mentioned by at–Tabariyy who said: it was mentioned it was about al-Akhnas , and others claimed it was about al-Aswad but it was not about him, and others said it was about ^Abd ar-Rahman Ibn al-Aswad which is far fetched, because he was young at the time and he had embraced Islam and was mentioned to be among the companions”.
هَمَّازٍ مَّشَّاءٍ بِنَمِيمٍ ﴿١١﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:11] Backbiter, going about with gossip to cause enmity.
Ibn ^Abbas said this is in reference to the backbiter, and back biting is mentioning about your Muslim brother, behind his back, that which is in him that he deslikes to be mentioned. Abu Dawud narrated in his book as-Sunan about Anas Ibn Malik who said: The Messenger of Allah sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam said: “ When I was made to ascend to the sky I passed by people with brazen nails scratching their faces and chests, so I said, who are they O Jibril? He said, those are the ones who consume the flesh of the people and violate their honor”.
قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: “لما عُرجَ بي مررتُ بقوم لهم أظفار من نحاس يخمشون وجوههم وصدورهم، فقلت: من هؤلاء يا جبريل؟ قال: هؤلاء الذين يأكلون لحوم الناس ويقعون في أعراضهم”.
And he is one who spreads tales for the purpose of causing enmity between them. Tale bearing is spreading the statements said to those concerned to cause enmity. The Messenger of Allah sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam said: “ The tale bearer does not enter paradise along with the first batches”; narrated by al-Bukhari and reported by Abu Dawud in his book as-Sunan.
قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: “لا يدخلُ الجنة قتَّاتٌ”
مَّنَّاعٍ لِّلْخَيْرِ مُعْتَدٍ أَثِيمٍ ﴿١٢﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:12] Hinderer of (all) good, transgressor beyond bounds, deep in sin,
It appears that the term good used here is in reference to goodness in general as was mentioned by Abu Hayyan It was said it means the money miser. And it was said the one who stops his off springs and tribesmen from embracing Islam telling them whomever embraces Islam I shall never benefit him in anything. According to most of the scholars this is in reference to Al Walid Ibn Al Mughirah.
Moreover, he is one who transgresses against the people doing them injustice, crossing the acceptable boundaries and delving in sins.
عُتُلٍّ بَعْدَ ذَٰلِكَ زَنِيمٍ ﴿١٣﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:13] Violent and cruel, evil and reprehensibly base-
Moreover, he is one who is rough mannered and un-lovingly cold. And it was said one who drives and coerces people into what they hate through beating and imprisoning. And it was said one who is extreme in unjust altercation. And it was said one who is abhorrent and base. And it was said one who exaggerates in eating , drinking, cruelty and injustice.
The meaning entails that over and above the degraded attributes that Allah attributed to him he also falsely claims that his father was from the tribe of Quraysh. Also it was said the meaning is that he is known for evil just as the goat is known by what hangs down from its ear and the throat. Al-Bukhari narrated in his book of as-Sahih about Ibn ^Abbas, may Allah accept both of their deeds, who said in interpreting the saying of Allah ﴿عُتُلٍّ بعدَ ذلكَ زنيمٍ﴾ : (Zanim: زنيمٍ) A man from Quraysh who has a dangle like the dangle of a goat. Also Al-Bukhari narrated in his book of as-Sahih about Harithah Ibn Wahb al-Khuza^I who said I heard the messenger of Allah say:
“ألا أخبركم بأهل الجنة، كلُّ ضعيف مُتَضَعّفٍ لو أقسم على الله لأبرَّه، ألا أخبركم بأهل النار كلُّ عُتُل جوَّاظ مُستكبر”
Which means: Shall I tell you about the people of paradise! They are every weak and taken for granted as weak whom if he supplicates to Allah he will be answered. And shall Itell you about the people of Hell-Fire! They are every rough mannered and un-lovingly cold who is arrogant to believe in the Hereafter and who harms and drives and coerces people. Ibn Jarir narrated about Ibn ^Abbas who said, when [Al-Qalam 68:10] was revealed to the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, we did not who was meant—referring to al Walid Ibn al-Mughirah—until the term (Zanim: زنيمٍ) in [Al-Qalam 68:13]was revealed, then we recognized him for having a dangle like the goat’s.
أَن كَانَ ذَا مَالٍ وَبَنِينَ ﴿١٤﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:14] Do not obey him because he possesses wealth and numerous sons.
There are two meanings, the first is: do not follow who has such dispraised attributes because of his wealth, numerous sons and worldly riches. The second is: because he has wealth and numerous sons he belies the Quran.
إِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِ آيَاتُنَا قَالَ أَسَاطِيرُ الْأَوَّلِينَ ﴿١٥﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:15] When our (Allah) revealed verses are recited to him, he says: Myths of the ancient people.
He says that about the Qur’an to redicule it’s verses and denies that it came from Allah.
سَنَسِمُهُ عَلَى الْخُرْطُومِ ﴿١٦﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:16] We will brand him on the nose with evident disgrace.
After Allah mentioned his base sayings and doings Allah referred to His threat of punishment and mentioned “We shall brand his nose with a mark showing the disgrace of his entire livelihood in this life”. It was said he was cut by the sword on the nose during the battle of Badr that left a brand of disgrace that shall attach to him and never depart him.
إِنَّا بَلَوْنَاهُمْ كَمَا بَلَوْنَا أَصْحَابَ الْجَنَّةِ إِذْ أَقْسَمُوا لَيَصْرِمُنَّهَا مُصْبِحِينَ ﴿١٧﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:17] Surely we (Allah) have tried them as we tried the owners of the garden, who swore that they would certainly pick the fruits in the morning to deprive the poor,
(Allah) have tried the people of Makkah by bestowing on them wealth so they may be thankful and not spendthrift. But when they did and posed enmity against Muhammad (Allah) afflicted them with famine and drought, just as (Allah) tried the owners of the gardens who swore that they would certainly pick the fruits in the morning to deprive the poor from the recurrent charity their father before them offered.
وَلَا يَسْتَثْنُونَ ﴿١٨﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:18] And made no reservation of relying on the Will of Allah;
And when they attempted to act on it and pick the fruits in the morning they did not say “if Allah Wills”. Rather they decisively acted as if they absolutely control their affairs.
The story of the owners of the gardens: The scholars of interpretation mentioned that a man in Yemen who owned an orchard and was a believer following prophet Jesus (^Isa), peace be upon him. He used, at the time of harvest, to give away part of his fruits to the poor as a charity. When he died his three sons inherited him. One day they said we have little money and many children and our father used to give the charity when the money was plenty and the children were few; so we cannot do it anymore when our money is little and our children are plenty. Hence, they were determined to deprive the poor from the repeated charity and decided to pick the fruits early in the morning before any of the poor show up. But when they reached their orchard in the morning they found it had burned down and turned as black as the night.
فَطَافَ عَلَيْهَا طَائِفٌ مِّن رَّبِّكَ وَهُمْ نَائِمُونَ ﴿١٩﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:19] Then there came on the garden a fire from your Lord, which swept away all around, while they were asleep.
A matter came from Allah that circled all over the orchard; This is in reference to the fire that Allah sent and entirely burned down the orchard when they were asleep.
فَأَصْبَحَتْ كَالصَّرِيمِ ﴿٢٠﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:20] So it burned down and became as black as the night.
So the orchard burned down and became as black as the night or as white as the morning clear without any trees.
فَتَنَادَوْا مُصْبِحِينَ ﴿٢١﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:21] As the morning broke, they cried out one unto another,-
The owners of the gardens when they woke up they called one another to proceed to the orchards. It was said their orchards became like black ashes.
أَنِ اغْدُوا عَلَىٰ حَرْثِكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ صَارِمِينَ ﴿٢٢﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:22] Saying: Go early in the morning to your field if you would gather the fruits.”
That is go early in the morning if you desire to pick the fruits.
فَانطَلَقُوا وَهُمْ يَتَخَافَتُونَ ﴿٢٣﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:23] So they went, while saying secretly one unto another in low tones,
They proceeded to their fields while whispering to one another so others do not hear them and know what they intended to do.
أَن لَّا يَدْخُلَنَّهَا الْيَوْمَ عَلَيْكُم مِّسْكِينٌ ﴿٢٤﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:24] “Let not a single indigent person enters upon you into the (garden) this day.”
They whispered to one another do not enable any poor or indigent person enter into the gardens.
وَغَدَوْا عَلَىٰ حَرْدٍ قَادِرِينَ ﴿٢٥﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:25] And in the morning they went in with this purpose, having strong unjust resolve.
Hence they went in the morning to their gardens with a strong resolve to carry out a matter they planned secretly and embraced, thinking they have the complete autonomy to fulfill their plan. It was said that the reference in this Ayah is to the fact that they intended depriving the poor from a charity their father used to offer. And it was said the Ayah has other meanings. The term ﴿قادرينَ﴾ means Indeed they had the power within themselves and nothing was stopping them from reaching their fields. There is also a possibility that the term means ‘to make it remotely achievable’ in reference to that they made it difficult for the poor to achieve the charity their father used to give to them; the same as in the meaning of the term when it was used in the saying of Allah in Surah al-Fajr ﴿فقَدَرَ عليهِ رزقهُ﴾ . This last meaning was mentioned by Abu Hayyan.
فَلَمَّا رَأَوْهَا قَالُوا إِنَّا لَضَالُّونَ ﴿٢٦﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:26] But when they saw it burnt down, they said: “Lo! We have surely lost our way.”
When those people arrived in their field and saw it burnt down they did not recognize it and said O people we have lost our way; then they did recognize it and understand that they lost the crop as a punishment from Allah. It was said that it means they acknowledged that they strayed in waking up to the resolve of depriving the poor and indigent from the fruit and thus were punished for that.
بَلْ نَحْنُ مَحْرُومُونَ ﴿٢٧﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:27] “Indeed we are desolate and made to suffer privation of the fruits of our labour by depriving the poor!”
They said, rather O people we have been deprived the benefit and the fruits of our field due to our plan to deprive the poor and indigent from the charity of the fruit.
قَالَ أَوْسَطُهُمْ أَلَمْ أَقُل لَّكُمْ لَوْلَا تُسَبِّحُونَ ﴿٢٨﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:28] The best and most mindful of them said: “Did I not say to you, ‘Why not glorify (Allah)?'”
The best and the one with the most sound mind among them said have I not tell you to clear Allah from all imperfection and thank Him for the endowments He bestowed upon you! He reprimanded them for not praising Allah and leaving out clearing Allah from evil doing; had they done that they would have submitted to his order of being kind to the indigent and followed in that the habit of their father. But when they overlooked remembering Allah and were determined to deprive the indigent Allah inflicted them with the loss of their fields. It was said the meaning entails: Lest you had not leave out saying God Willing. It was also said the meaning entails : lest had you not leave out remembering Allah and repent from your ill intention; and when he blamed them they did return to remembering Allah and admit their injustice and initiated clearing Allah from all imperfection.
قَالُوا سُبْحَانَ رَبِّنَا إِنَّا كُنَّا ظَالِمِينَ ﴿٢٩﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:29] They said: Glorified is our Lord! Lo! We did injustice to ourselves and have been wrong-doers.
They said we praise Allah and clear Him from injustice regarding what He did to our fields. Ibn ^Abbas said: It means we repent to Allah from our sin for we did injustice to ourselves by depriving the indigent the fruits of our fields.
فَأَقْبَلَ بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ يَتَلَاوَمُونَ ﴿٣٠﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:30] Then they turned blaming one another.
They started blaming one another; one would say to the other: you suggested that opinion to us ; and the other would say to the next: you frightened us of poverty; and the third would tell another: you instigated us to gather wealth.
قَالُوا يَا وَيْلَنَا إِنَّا كُنَّا طَاغِينَ ﴿٣١﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:31] They said: Woe to us! Surely we have transgressed!
Then they said: woe to us we ought to be destroyed for indeed we have gone against the order of Allah by leaving out remembering Him and depriving the poor from their designated right.
عَسَىٰ رَبُّنَا أَن يُبْدِلَنَا خَيْرًا مِّنْهَا إِنَّا إِلَىٰ رَبِّنَا رَاغِبُونَ ﴿٣٢﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:32] We turn to our Lord in repentance and beseech Him that He may give us instead a better garden than this.
Hopeful of receiving the relief and forgiveness from Allah they said: perhaps Allah would grant us a garden better than what we had and indeed we plead with Him to bestow it upon us. Nafi^ and Abu Ja^far and Abu ^amr recited ” يُبَدّلنا ” with a Fathah on the Ba’ and doubling the Dal.
Ibn Mas^ud said: “I was informed that they became sincere and Allah replaced their orchard by another called Al Hayawan that bear grapes a mule can carry only a single bunch of grapes”.
كَذَٰلِكَ الْعَذَابُ ۖ وَلَعَذَابُ الْآخِرَةِ أَكْبَرُ ۚ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿٣٣﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:33] Such is the Punishment in this life; but greater is the Punishment in the Hereafter, if they did but know!
Such is the torture of this world with which Allah inflicted the owners of the garden by destroying what they had in a manner that turned their garden to burnt ashes; Indeed the torture of the Hereafter for those who disobey and blaspheme is far more colossal, and had they known that they would have refrained, repented and retracted their faults.
إِنَّ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ جَنَّاتِ النَّعِيمِ ﴿٣٤﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:34] Surely the God fearing Righteous ones shall have with their Lord Paradise-gardens of bliss.
Allah informed us about what He prepared for the God fearing pious ones those who believe in Allah and His messenger and avoid associating partners with Allah and all other blasphemy and the God fearing one is the one is the one who fulfills what Allah obligated one with and abstains from what Allah made forbidden. For those God fearing ones Allah prepared the gardens of paradise of everlasting enjoyment and bliss; Allah said:
﴿إنَّ الذينَ ءامنوا وعمِلوا الصَّالِحاتِ إنَّا لا نُضِيعُ أجرَ مَنْ أحسنَ عملاً* أولئكَ لهُمْ جنَّاتُ عدنٍ تجري من تحتهمُ الأنهارُ يُحَلَّوْنَ فيها مِن أساوِرَ مِن ذهبٍ ويلبسونَ ثيابًا خُضْرًا من سُندسٍ وإستبرقٍ مُتَّكِئينَ فيها على الأرائكِ نِعْم الثَّوابُ وحَسُنَتْ مُرتَفَقًا﴾
The Ayah means: For them will be everlasting Gardens; beneath them rivers will flow; they will be adorned therein with bracelets of gold, and they will wear green garments of finest silk and gold embroidery: reclining therein on raised couches. How Excellent the recompense is! and how goodly the resting place is!
The messenger of Allah, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said:
“إن أهل الجنة يأكلون فيها ويشربون ولا يتفلون ولا يبولون ولا يتغوطون ولا يتمخّطون” قالوا: فما بال الطعام؟ قال: “جُشاء ورشحٌ كرشح المسك، يُلهمون التسبيح والتحميد كما يُلهمون النَّفس”
The Hadith means: The occupants of paradise eat and drink therein and do not spew out, urinate, defecate, and propel nasal discharge; they said what happens to the food eaten, he said: turns to an excretion and secretion similar to musk and they shall be brain-waved to glorify and praise Allah as they are brain-waved to breathe.
Also he said:
“ينادي مناد: إن لكم أن تَصِحوا فلا تسقموا أبدًا، وإن لكم أن تحْيَوْا فلا تموتوا أبدًا، وإن لكم أن تشبوا فلا تهرموا أبدًا، وإن لكم أن تنعموا فلا تبأسوا أبدًا، فذلك قوله عز وجل: ﴿ونُودوا أن تِلكُمُ الجنَّةُ أورِثتُمُوها بما كُنتم تعملون﴾ [سورة الأعراف] رواهما مسلم(1).
The Hadith means: A caller shall call out: you shall be everlastingly healthy and never get sick, and you shall be everlastingly alive and never die, and you shall be everlastingly youthful and never turn old, and you shall be in everlasting bliss and never be saddened, as it is mentioned in the saying of Allah:
﴿ونُودوا أن تِلكُمُ الجنَّةُ أورِثتُمُوها بما كُنتم تعملون﴾
The Ayah means: And it is cried unto the believers: This is the Paradise-garden. You have been made its heirs for your deeds of righteousness you used to do.
Both Hadiths were narrated by Muslim in his Sahih, the book of Paradise and its enjoyments.
أَفَنَجْعَلُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ كَالْمُجْرِمِينَ ﴿٣٥﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:35] Verily! Shall we (Allah) then treat The Muslim People of Faith like the Disbelieving People of Sin?
When the blasphemers said we shall be given in the Hereafter better than what you believers will be given, Allah exposed their lying informing us that in the judgment of Allah the believers who belived in their Lord and humbled themselves extremely in worship are unequal to the blasphemers. The statement is a negative interrogative that hinders the falsehood the blasphemers uttered and reprimands and threatens them.
مَا لَكُمْ كَيْفَ تَحْكُمُونَ ﴿٣٦﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:36] What is the matter with you? How do you make a false judgment?
Then Allah reprimanded them: what is this claim of yours?! This is another interrogative that denounces their claim, followed by a third interrogative denouncing their judgment. Thus the meaning establishes that how do you make such an invalid judgment! as if the matter of recompense rests with you, that you judge at your will that you shall have the same good rewards as the Muslims in the Hereafter; reflecting that this judgment emanates from an ill mind and twisted opinion.
أَمْ لَكُمْ كِتَابٌ فِيهِ تَدْرُسُونَ ﴿٣٧﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:37] Or have you a scripture wherein you read and learn-
O people do you have a book sent unto you from Allah and brought to you by one of His messengers that you read in and learn, to validate your false claim equating, in status and reward, between the Muslims and the blasphemers?
إِنَّ لَكُمْ فِيهِ لَمَا تَخَيَّرُونَ ﴿٣٨﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:38] That claims you shall have therein what you choose?
And that substantiates that you shall have in the Hereafter, as per your claim, that which you desire? Al-Mizzi doubled the Ta’ of تَخَيَّرون when recited attached to the preceding full madd.
أَمْ لَكُمْ أَيْمَانٌ عَلَيْنَا بَالِغَةٌ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ ۙ إِنَّ لَكُمْ لَمَا تَحْكُمُونَ ﴿٣٩﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:39] Or have you received from Us a covenant on oath, extending to the Day of Judgment, that you shall surely have what you ordain?
Or have you received from Allah a covenant on oath, extending to the Day of Judgment, that you shall surely have what you have judged?
سَلْهُمْ أَيُّهُم بِذَٰلِكَ زَعِيمٌ ﴿٤٠﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:40] Ask them O Muhammad which of them will vouch for that!
O Muhammad ask those blasphemers and tell them: who among you is a guarantor who pledges that you shall have of goodness in the Hereafter the same as the Muslims?!
أَمْ لَهُمْ شُرَكَاءُ فَلْيَأْتُوا بِشُرَكَائِهِمْ إِن كَانُوا صَادِقِينَ ﴿٤١﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:41] Or have they “partners in God hood” that substantiate what they ordain? Then let them produce their “partners”, if they are truthful!
(Or have they “partners in God hood”) has two meanings. The first: do they believe that Allah has partners who in the Hereafter will equate them with the Muslims in reward and safety from punishment?! The statement “have they partners…” was attributed to them because as such they would have attributed partners to Allah.
The second: or they have people who share their opinion of equating between the Muslim and the blasphemer, and that they shall have the same goodness as the Muslims in the Hereafter?!
The order statement here: Then let them bring about their partners, reflect that it is undoable. The meaning is that no one says as they said, just as they do not have a book and have no covenant of oath from Allah and have no guarantor who guarantees that matter for them from Allah. Then let them bring about their “partners”, to testify for them if they are truthful!
يَوْمَ يُكْشَفُ عَن سَاقٍ وَيُدْعَوْنَ إِلَى السُّجُودِ فَلَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ ﴿٤٢﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:42] On the Day of Judgment when there shall be a severe affliction, and they are ordered to prostrate themselves but are not able,-
When Allah invalidated their saying and established that it has no grounds what so ever, Allah informed us about the greatness of the Day of Judgment. So Allah told us:
﴿ يومَ يُكشفُ عن ساقٍ﴾
That it is a day of severe and intense events involving settlement of accounts and thereupon reward and/or punishment. In the Arabic language if the battle intensifies one would say (كشفت الحرب عن ساق), as reported in Fath al-Bari, the explanation of Sahih al-Bukhari [13/428].
It is confirmed that the meaning of the Ayah was reported from the most skilled interpreter (Turjuman) of Qur’an ^Abdullah Ibn ^Abbas, who said: it (the Day of Judgment will reveal intense and severe events).
Al-Hakim narrated from the route of ^Ikrimah from Ibn ^Abbas who said: it is a day of distress and hardship.
The people of falsehood among those Mushabihhah who liken Allah to the creations said Allah has a shin that He exposes on the Day of Judgment; Indeed Allah is greatly clear of such non befitting attributes.
Imam Abu Ja^far at–Tahawi, who is among the heads of the righteous salaf, in his creed which is the creed of Ahl as-Sunnah Wal Jama^ah, said: “Allah the Exalted is clear from being attributed with limits and boundaries and sides and organs”.
The blasphemers on that Day will be called upon, out of reprimand and not accountability, to prostrate, but they will not be able to, as if their backs are sheathed with iron. They shall be disabled to prostrate so they may be further saddened and remorseful for their negligence, when they had sound and functional organs and were ordered to be believers in this world and thus prostrate.
خَاشِعَةً أَبْصَارُهُمْ تَرْهَقُهُمْ ذِلَّةٌ ۖ وَقَدْ كَانُوا يُدْعَوْنَ إِلَى السُّجُودِ وَهُمْ سَالِمُونَ ﴿٤٣﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:43] Their eyes will be gazed down, – humiliation will cover them; noticing that they had been summoned aforetime to prostrate themselves while they were sound and yet had refused.
The eyes of the blasphemers will be gazed down,- humiliation will cover them at a time when the believers will raise their heads high and their faces white when the faces of the blasphemers are black; noticing that they had been summoned by the messengers aforetime to prostrate themselves while they were sound and yet had refused.
فَذَرْنِي وَمَن يُكَذِّبُ بِهَـٰذَا الْحَدِيثِ ۖ سَنَسْتَدْرِجُهُم مِّنْ حَيْثُ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿٤٤﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:44] O Muhammad, Leave Me (Allah) to deal with those who belie this Message. We shall gradually punish them by ways they do not perceive.
O Muhammad, it is enough reprisal on your part to leave to Allah dealing with those who belie the Qur’an, for Allah knows best what they deserve of punishment. This entails a severe threat to those who disbelieve in what the prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, brought regarding the Hereafter and other. Ibn al-Jawziyy said “some interpreters of Qur’an claimed that the Ayah was abrogated by the Ayah of the sword, however, if we establish that the meaning entails a severe threat and reprimand then the Ayah is not abrogated.” We (Allah) shall gradually one step at a time punish them by ways they do not perceive; Allah grants the sinners health and prosperity to which they submit and think they are favored over the believers, when in reality it is a reason for their destruction. Each time they sin Allah grants them an endowment and they turn forgetful and negligent of seeking forgiveness until they face the severe punishment.
وَأُمْلِي لَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ كَيْدِي مَتِينٌ ﴿٤٥﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:45] And I (Allah) shall grant them a long waiting interval, yet surely My (Allah) punishment is severe.
Allah shall grant them a long time before the severe punishment befalls them. The punishment of Allah is indeed severe and strong.
أَمْ تَسْأَلُهُمْ أَجْرًا فَهُم مِّن مَّغْرَمٍ مُّثْقَلُونَ ﴿٤٦﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:46] Indeed you have not asked a fee from them for inviting them to the religion, so that they refuse out of fear of being burdened with debt?
Is it the case O Muhammad, that you have demanded a fee of them for inviting them to the true religion, that they feel burdened with the pay back should they believe, and thus are discouraged to believe? This statement is a negative interrogative that means indeed you have not asked a fee of them in return for your advice that made them feel burdened, hence abstain from embracing the religion to which you have called them.
أَمْ عِندَهُمُ الْغَيْبُ فَهُمْ يَكْتُبُونَ ﴿٤٧﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:47] Or that the Guarded Tablet is in their hands, so that they can write down the Unforeseen?
A negative interrogative statement that means they do not have the Guarded Tablet that contains the Unforeseen at the control of their finger tips to write in it that which they say will happen!
فَاصْبِرْ لِحُكْمِ رَبِّكَ وَلَا تَكُن كَصَاحِبِ الْحُوتِ إِذْ نَادَىٰ وَهُوَ مَكْظُومٌ ﴿٤٨﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:48] So wait patiently for the Command of your Lord, and be not like Yunus the companion of the whale, when he supplicated while he was distressed with his people.
So Muhammad wait patiently for the judgment of your Lord which soon will come, and proceed to fulfill the orders of Allah, and do not let their disbelief in you and harming you discourage you from conveying what you were ordered to convey. The Ayah establishes that the Prophet and all the other prophets are impeccable from falling short in conveying the message from Allah. And do not be like Prophet Yunus who was imprisoned in the belly of the whale. The story of Prophet Yunus when he went to Iraq at the orders of his Lord to convey the message of Allah and invite the blasphemers to worship Allah alone and leave out worshipping idols, they rejected his call and rebelled against him and persisted on their blasphemy. Yunus remained patient with the harm with which they inflicted him while preaching them and calling them to Islam until he lost hope in face of their stubbornness and persistence to remain blasphemous. And he left their city thinking that he will not be blameworthy in Allah’s judgment for leaving before Allah orders him to do so. After prophet Yunus was faced by the calamity of being swollen by the whale for rushing out of the city prior to the orders of Allah he returned to his people and found them already had believed and he stayed with them teaching them the matters of the religion.
Benefit: Prophet Yunus left the city being dissatisfied with his people for disbelieving in him and persisting on their blasphemy. It is not permissible for one to believe that prophet Yunus left because he was dissatisfied with his Lord. It is blasphemous to be dissatisfied with Allah and it is blasphemous to believe that about prophet Yunus. Prophets are impeccable from blasphemy, enormous sins and small abject sins before and after prophet hood.
While in the belly of the whale, prophet Yunus made a supplication to Allah while full of dissatisfaction with his people for their blasphemy and for making him rush to leave them; he said : “لا إله إلا أنت سبحانك” no one is God except You who is clear of all imperfection.
لَّوْلَا أَن تَدَارَكَهُ نِعْمَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ لَنُبِذَ بِالْعَرَاءِ وَهُوَ مَذْمُومٌ ﴿٤٩﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:49] Were it not that mercy from his Lord had bestowed upon him, he would certainly have been cast down upon the bare land while he was blamed.
Were it not that mercy from Allah had bestowed upon him and his supplication was answered and his excuse accepted, he would certainly have been propelled out of the whales belly and cast down upon the bare land while he was blamed. However, he was forgiven prior to exiting the belly of the whale.
فَاجْتَبَاهُ رَبُّهُ فَجَعَلَهُ مِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ ﴿٥٠﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:50] However, his Lord did choose him and make him among the Righteous.
Allah choose him and made him among those equipped with the most complete traits of righteousness, and it was said among the Prophets.
وَإِن يَكَادُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَيُزْلِقُونَكَ بِأَبْصَارِهِمْ لَمَّا سَمِعُوا الذِّكْرَ وَيَقُولُونَ إِنَّهُ لَمَجْنُونٌ ﴿٥١﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:51] And those who disbelieve would almost harm you with their evil eyes when they hear the Message,-
The interpreters have two interpretations for this Ayah: the first : The blasphemers wanted to afflict the prophet with the evil eye and Allah protected him and revealed this Ayah. The second : It was said that the blasphemers look at the prophet with enmity that they tend to harm the prophet with their eyes. This Ayah contains a proof that the evil eye and its harm is a true matter; the prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said: “العين حق” narrated by al-Bukhari: It means Inflicting harm by the eye is something that is confirmed to exist.
وَمَا هُوَ إِلَّا ذِكْرٌ لِّلْعَالَمِينَ ﴿٥٢﴾
[Al-Qalam 68:52] When it is nothing else than a sound guidance to creation.
The Qur’an contains preachments for jinns and humans. From it they deduce what is beneficial for them religiously and in the worldly matters. Hence the one who delivered it to humans and jinns and invited to it and recited to them how is it acceptable to say about him that he is insane; rather this testifies to the soundness of his mind and superiority of his status. Hence the one who attributes default and shortcomings to the prophet only reflects his own ignorance and disappointment; for the people of merit are recognized by their likes. It was said:
إذا لم يكن للمرء عينٌ صحيحةٌ *** فلا غَروَ أن يرتابَ والصبح مسفر
This verse of poetry means:
If one does not have a healthy eye then it is not strange that he doubts even when the daylight is well broken in.