Time for fasting Ramadan
The Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, said:
صوموا لرؤيته، وافطروا لرؤيته، فأن غم ّ عليكم فأكملوا عدة شعبان ثلاثين
• Based on this hadith, Muslims have to seek sighting the moon (crescent) on the twenty ninth (29th) of Sha`baan. If they see it they will fast the next day. However if they could not see the moon, they will complete Sha`baan thirty days and will start fasting Ramadan the day after the thirtieth (30th).
• If there was an obstruction in the sky, the Muslim judge accepts the testimony of one Trustowrthy (`adl) Muslim who testifies that he has sighted the moon on the twenty ninth (29th) of Sha`baan.
• That person can be a man or a woman a free person or a slave.
• On the other hand, if there was no obstruction in the sky and one Muslim or two testify on the twenty ninth of Sha`baan that they have seen the moon, the Muslim judge would not accept that testimony except if a big group of Muslims confirms that they have seen the moon in a way that by their saying there will be no doubt in knowing that the moon has been sighted.
Time to stop fasting Ramadan
• If there was an obstruction in the sky, then the Imam or the judge will not accept for confirming the moon of Shawwaal for `Eedul Fitr less than two men or a man and two women.
• If there was no obstruction, only the testimony of a group is accepted in a way that there will be no doubt in knowing that the moon has been sighted.
• Sighting the beginning and ending of other moths in the year follows this rule.
Intention for Ramadan
• One may fast Ramadan by making the intention starting from sunset.
• However, if one does not make the intention until Fajr sets in, one can still make the intention as long as it is before the Middle of the Day.
• The Middle of the Day is half the time between Fajr and Maghrib (it is before Dhuhr by about 40 minutes or more).
• Similarly, fasting the specific vow (like to say, e.g., I vow to fast tomorrow) or the optional fasting follows this rule.
Intention for Making up Ramadan
• Making up the fast of Ramadan has to be done only between Maghrib and before Fajr.
• Similarly, fasting the non-specific vow (like to say, e.g., I vow to fast a day), fasting the kaffaarah fast or making up the fasting of an optional fasting which the person has invalidated follows the same rule.
Make up and Kaffaarah
• The person who deliberately copulates (or copulated with) in one to the two passages or eats or drinks something that nurtures the body or is used for treatment like medication then his/her fasting is invalidated and one has to make up that day and fulfill a kaffaarah.
• The Kaffaarah is to liberate a slave. If one is unable to liberate a slave, then one has to fast two consecutive months outside Ramadan and excluding the days that one is prohibited to fast. If one cannot do that, then one has to feed sixty Miskeen sixty expiations.
• There is no kaffaarah if one invalidates a day other than Ramadan even if one is making up a day of Ramadan.