Sooratul Baqarah, 183:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ
Allah made it incumbent upon us to fast the month of Ramadan like Allah made it similarly incumbent upon the previous Prophets and their nations from Adam to our time to fast (even though they might not have fasted the month of Ramadan). Fasting is an old worship and the analogy in the verse indicates that each nation has been assigned days to fast.
That is, you worship Allah by fasting during certain days like those who were before you worshipped Allah by fasting. By that, you would protect yourselves by fasting from committing the sinful doings and avoiding the prohibited matters. This is so because by fasting one is stronger to subdue oneself from falling in the unlawful or by fasting you would be aligned with the righteous’ assembly, since fasting is their motto.
Sooratul Baqarah, 184:
أَيَّامًا مَّعْدُودَاتٍ ۚ فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ ۚ وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ ۖ فَمَن تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًا فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّهُ ۚ وَأَن تَصُومُوا خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ۖ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
Allah made it incumbent upon us to fast specific days. That is, they are scheduled days whose number is known and assigned.
Sick or Travelling
Those of you who are sick or travelling, a travel during which the prayer is shortened, and one fears for oneself more sickness, then one fasts the number of days one has skipped fasting during Ramadan, because of sickness or travel.
Those who are able to fast and are not excused to break the fast have to pay expiation (fidyah).
This judgment, however, was only applicable during the time when fasting was first obligated when the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, started teaching Islam. Allah ordered the Muslims to fast but during the early time of the Message Muslims were not used to fast and faced a hardship in fasting. Allah permitted them not to fast and instead ordered them to pay expiation.
Furthermore, this judgment was then abrogated (lifted by a later judgment) by Allah’s saying is sooratul Baqarah, 185:
فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ
This meant that those who are not travelling or not sick have to fast Ramadan. On the other hand, the ones who are sick or travelling can break the fast and make up the days they did not fast.
Charitable but Better to Fast
As mentioned above, during the first period of the revelation when some Muslims had a hardship to fast:
• The one who gives as charity in excess of expiation is better for him/her.
• However, you who are able to fast, it is better for you to fast than to pay expiation volunteering in paying the charity.
Sooratul Baqarah, 185:
شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِي أُنزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِّنَ الْهُدَىٰ وَالْفُرْقَانِ ۚ فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ ۖ وَمَن كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ ۗ يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلَا يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ وَلِتُكْمِلُوا الْعِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبِّرُوا اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ
The verse means that the month of Ramadan is the month when Qur’an was first revealed. Qur’an guides people to the True Matters (alHaqq) and conveys the clear and undisputed proofs by which one is led to abiding by the True Matters and distinguishing between the True Matters and falsehood.
Residing and Sick Persons and Easiness of Islam
The one who is residing and is a non-traveler will fast the month of Ramadan and will not refrain from fasting. The sick person and the traveler will make up the days they did not fast.
Allah made it easy for you to follow Islam and did not make it a hardship to follow the Islamic rules. Allah made it permissible to skip fasting during Ramadan the days when one is a traveler or sick, but then after Ramadan after the sickness and travel are over one makes up the days one has missed in order to complete the number of the fasted days.
Recognize Allah’s greatness and that Allah’s greatness is greater than the greatness of any great one. Praise Allah and thank Him for what Allah has guided you to abide by.