The Intellectual Evidence for the Invalidity of the Saying of the Mu^tazilah that the Slave Creates his Deeds
The people of the truth say that the slave’s creation of his own deeds is invalid because of the absolute inclusivity of the Power, Will, and Knowledge of Allah. The clarification of that is that the Power of Allah is all-inclusive, and His Knowledge is all-inclusive, and His Will is all-inclusive. The relation of all these Attributes to the possible occurrences is one relation, because the existence of the mentally possible is in need of the Powerful One in reference to its possibility and its occurrence.
If these Attributes of His were specific to only some of the possible matters, that would dictate Allah’s attribution with the opposites of these Attributes, such as ignorance and inability; that is imperfection, and imperfection in reference to Allah is impossible. Furthermore, the specification of those attributes would have dictated a specifier, and then [the specification of] that specifier would be related to the One with necessary Existence and His Attributes, and this is impossible. Therefore the absolute inclusivity of His Attributes is confirmed.
If Allah the Exalted Willed for the creation of an occurrence, and the slave willed for what is different from that, and the will of the slave took place instead of the Will of Allah, that would validate the impossible claim of two gods and for there to be numerous gods. The multiplicity of God is impossible by the known evidence, and whatever leads to an impossibility is impossible.